Pipes and Pipeline

Independent Inspection

Baker Testing Services works with petroleum, gas, transportation, storage, and other industries to provide independent non-destructive testing (NDT) and inspection of both new and in-service piping.

Inspection services include longitudinal scans, x-ray of new pipes, and girth welds typical on hot reheat piping. 

  • Steam Piping
  • Pipelines
  • Petrochemical Piping Components
  • Process Piping
  • Boiler Tubes
  • Biopharmaceutical Piping

NDT Testing Methods for Piping

Baker Testing Services provides many non-destructive and destructive tests and inspections for piping systems, welded pipe, and pipeline applications.

Ultrasonic Thickness Testing (UTT)

Accurate, digital ultrasonic measurements can instantly determine pipe wall thickness. A series of random readings, a comprehensive investigation of piping system thickness or flow acceleration corrosion surveys (FAC) can identify and map erosion and corrosion in piping and valve components.

Ultrasound – Phased Array (PA)
Ultrasound – Time of Flight Diffraction (TOFD)
Ultrasound – Shear Wave

Baker Testing provides state-of-the-art ultrasonic testing for a wide variety of pipe, weld and pipeline applications to accurately detect, locate, and  evaluate flaws or discontinuities that may not be detectable by other test methods.

Radiography (RT, X-Ray)

Both computerized digital radiography (CR) and film radiography can be performed in our laboratory vaults or in the field for code inspections of pipe and pipeline welds or for other investigations that require volumetric imaging. Baker Testing Service’s radiography capabilities include multiple gamma-ray sources, high Kv constant potential fixed or portable x-ray cameras, and a fleet of fully equipped darkroom vans. Images and evaluation reports are provided on-site for same day results on field applications.  Multiple x-ray vaults in our laboratories allow for high volume, rapid turnaround of pipe weld components and welding qualification tests.

Magnetic Particle  (MT, MPI)

Carbon steel and other ferromagnetic piping and pipe welds are commonly tested for surface cracks and other flaws by magnetic particle testing. Some piping and weld configurations do not allow for radiography or ultrasonic testing – or they may not require those tests for code conformance. MT is a rapid and effective method for flaw detection that can be done both at our laboratories and in the field with several methods and indication sensitivities.

Liquid Penetrant (PT, FPI, LPI)

Liquid penetrant inspection is an effective method for detecting surface flaws and potential leak path discontinuities in pipe welds and piping on both magnetic and non-magnetic materials. Easily portable color contrast penetrant equipment is frequently used in the field. Both fluorescent or color contrast penetrant methods are used in our laboratories to ensure code compliance and leak free piping components

Ferrite Testing

Testing welds in piping systems for ferrite content, sometimes called delta-ferrite or ferrite number (FN), has become a requirement for many stainless steel piping components that will be exposed to corrosive conditions. A measurement of specified FN can assure a balance between corrosion resistance and weld crack potential.  Baker Testing provides highly accurate, portable and rapid ferrite testing in both digital magnetic induction and with magnetic permeability indicator technologies.

Visual Inspection

In accordance with most industry specifications, Visual Inspection of welds is provided in addition to other NDT methods. Visual inspection is the oldest and most commonly used NDT method for pipe weld and piping inspection. Properly applied by qualified inspectors, visual inspection can be the most cost effective way of ensuring code compliance and reliability for piping and pipe welds. Prior to coating pipeline welds, before service, or as an in-service inspection, visual inspection can easily identify discontinuities and flaws that could prevent piping system and weld failure.

Positive Materials Identification (XRF PMI)

Highly accurate and portable analyzers can positively identify metal alloys and the composition of elements by percentage in seconds. PMI testing has become an industry standard requirement for petrochemical and power generation piping components to assure that the correct materials have been used in fabrication or to identify an unknown alloy for proper welding applications.  Baker Testing uses state-of-the-art, hand held XRF PMI spectrometers in field or laboratory settings for instant results and detailed reporting of analytical data.

Hardness Testing

Baker Testing provides portable metal hardness testing to verify proper heat treatment, measure the correlation of material properties between components, or check the affects of heat from welding.  Using a handheld hardness impact device, rapid measurements can be converted to multiple hardness scales for comparison, specification conformance, and evaluation by engineers.

Destructive Testing

There are times when non–destructive testing does not provide values required by codes and standards for material strength and ductility. Baker Testing provides tension, bend, and compression testing for welding procedure qualification (WPS, PQR), welder performance qualification (WPQ) and material strength verification. Cutting and machining capabilities allows us to take test samples from weld coupons or pipe sections, machine them to standard specifications, and then perform required destructive tests at our laboratories.

Failure Analysis

Baker Testing uses non-destructive and destructive test methods to assist metallurgists and engineers determine and report the causes of pipe welding, pipe material, and piping system failures.  All of the test methods described above have been used for pipe failure investigations. Baker Testing Services works in conjunction with renowned, local metallurgists and engineers as third party experts.

Holiday (Continuity) Testing

Baker Testing provides holiday testing services to assure that pipeline and piping components have coatings and wrappings that meet specification or contract requirements. Unacceptable discontinuities such as pinholes or voids in pipe coatings are detected by an audible alarm or spark when a low voltage coil is passed over an area where the current conducts to the pipe surface.  Holiday testing is commonly used in pipeline applications using non-conductive coatings.

Piping System Life Expectancy Investigations

Using digital ultrasonic thickness testing, sometimes in conjunction with other NDT or destructive test methods, Baker Testing Services works with metallurgists and engineers to evaluate and report on the life expectancy of piping. Test results are measured against original piping thickness and evaluated with factors such as piping age, use, environment and pressure to establish a “life expectancy” report for insurance and preventative maintenance programs.


  • ASNT/NAS Level II and Level III certifications UT, RT, MT, PT, VT
  • Certified training on methods, procedures, and equipment to provide quality inspection
  • On-staff quality assurance personnel
  • Over 40 years of NDT experience
  • Northeast Gas Association & Veriforce Operator Qualified (OQ) for welding qualifications and pipeline inspection
  • Qualified/Certified inspections for:
    • API – American Petroleum Institute
    • ASME – American Society of Mechanical Engineers
    • ASME BPE – BioPharmaceutical Engineering
    • ANSI – American National Standards Institute
    • AWS – American Welding Society
    • AWWA – American Water Works Association
    • ASTM – American Society of Testing and Materials

Related Links

Power Industry

Storage Tanks

Welder Qualification